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測繪儀器的發展歷程

測繪儀器的發展歷程 The development course of Surveying and Mapping Instruments 測繪儀器是伴隨著測繪科學發展而發展起來的。早在公元前1400年,埃及就有了地產邊界的測量,在公元前3世紀,中國人就知道天然磁石的磁性,并有某種形式的磁羅盤,公元前2世紀,司馬遷在《史記.夏本記》中有敘述大禹為治水而行進行的測量工作。所謂“左準繩,右規矩”說明在古代就有了簡單的測量工具。使用這類儀器測量,勞動強度大、速度慢、精度低。 The surveying instrument is developed with the scientific development of Surveying and mapping. As early as 1400 BC, Egypt had measured property boundaries, in third Century BC, Chinese knew the magnetic lodestone, and magnetic compass in some form, second Century BC, Sima Qian in the summer. The "historical records" in the narrative work for flood control and measurement of yu. The so-called "left quasi - rope, right rules" shows a simple measuring tool in ancient times. Using this kind of instrument to measure, the labor intensity is big, the speed is slow, and the precision is low. 公元1730年,英國西森研制成第一臺游標經緯儀,隨后陸續出現了小平板儀、大平板儀以及水準儀等。2O世紀4O年代出現了光學玻璃度盤,用光學轉像系統的度盤對準位置的刻劃重合在同一平面上,根據這一理論就形成了光學經緯儀。光學經緯儀比早期的游標經緯儀大大提高了測角精度,而且體積小,重量輕,操作方便??梢哉f,從17世紀到20世紀中葉是光學測繪儀器時代,此時測繪科學的傳統理論和方法比較成熟。 In 1730, the British Nishimori developed first vernier theodolite, then gradually appeared Ohira Sakagi, flat instrument and leveling. In the 4O era of 2O century, the optical glass dial appeared, and the alignment of the disc alignment position coincided on the same plane. According to this theory, the optical theodolite was formed. Compared with the early vernier theodolite, the optical theodolite greatly improves the angle measurement precision, and has small volume, light weight and convenient operation. It can be said that the middle of the seventeenth Century to the middle of twentieth Century is the era of optical surveying and mapping instrument, and the traditional theory and method of Surveying and mapping are more mature.

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